Frank Turk in a debate with Jodie Sawyer, has claimed:
Let's start here: the Greek verb of interest in the verses you have listed is the verb "sozo". It's used 110 times in the NT, and by a long shot, most of the uses of this verb are the meaning "to save", and that in the soteriological sense -- the sense that Christ saves us from sin by His work to an eternal salvation. That's an irrefutable fact of the Greek and of the current scholarship. To be precise, 93 of the 110 occurrences take on this meaning of "to save".
(Frank Turk Ask the Calvinist Debate Blog
Does Frank Turk give any support for this wild contention? Of course not!
It is a patent falsehood!
The following is a word study done with every occurrence of the Greek word “sozo” (Gk = "save) submitted for your review and approval. I am sure that some of the conclusions will be disputed, but the general results are sufficient to show that Frank Turk’s assertion is far from painting an accurate portrayal of the evidence. Frank must do his homework before making such bold (and false) assertions!
109 occurences of the Greek word “sozo” (verb “save”) from the TR (Textus Receptus), using Englishman’s Concordance with results given in the King James Version.
65 occurences of sozo representing a temporal deliverance of one kind of another.
42 occurences of sozo representing a soteriological deliverance.
1 occurrence that I determined had a temporal and eternal aspect.
Rev 21:24 was ommitted due to it being disregarded by both the critical and Majority texts.61%
of the occurrences have to do with TEMPORAL
deliverances of one kind or another.
Which leaves only 39%
having a soteriological sense.
It is the knee-jerk reaction of 21st century readers of the Bible to import into the word “save” (Greek = “sozo”) and its cognates the meaning “salvation from hell” each time he reads it in the New Testament. Yet the word merely means “to deliver” in some sense or another. It is up to the context to decide what kind of deliverance is being referred to.
Word Study of Greek sozo
And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins.(Soteriological)
And his disciples came to him, and awoke him, saying, Lord, save us: we perish.(Temporal)
– The disciples are imploring Jesus to save them from physical death due to the sinking of their ship.
For she said within herself, If I may but touch his garment, I shall be whole.(Temporal)
– This woman desires physical healing from Jesus (“I shall be whole” = “healed”).
But Jesus turned him about, and when he saw her, he said, Daughter, be of good comfort; thy faith hath made thee whole. And the woman was made whole from that hour.(Temporal x 2)
– Jesus states that it was because of her faith that she was healed. Matthew also lets us know that at the very moment Jesus said this she was healed.
And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that endureth to the end shall be saved.(Temporal)
– Set within the context of temporal calamity (10:21, 22a, 23), Jesus declares that the one who endures until the end in the Great Tribulation, the same shall be delivered, in other words, into the Millennial Kingdom.
But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me.(Temporal)
– Peter, in fear, cries out to Jesus to be saved from drowning.
For whosoever will save his life shall lose it: and whosoever will lose his life for my sake shall find it.(Temporal)
– Jesus, in paradoxical fashion, states that the one whose desire it is to guard and retain his temporal and/or physical life shall lose his “life” in a metaphorical way.
For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost.(Temporal)
– Jesus’ primary ministry while on earth was to Israel
. His desire was to call National Israel unto repentance, to turn back to God. Obviously this had a spiritual connotation, but eternal salvation is not in view. Christ’s purpose was to bring Israel back into favor with God by their national repentance with a view to instituting the Kingdom of God. The parallel in Luke 15 clearly shows this parable within the context of repentance, which restores harmony with God (in this case, God’s chosen people, Israel) and averts temporal wrath and judgement. This verse is set in the context of the parable of the lost sheep (Israel). To further solidify this interpretation, note: “But He answered and said, ‘I was not sent except to the lost sheep of the house of Israel’” (Matthew 15:24). Notice how Jesus states his ministry is to the “lost sheep” of Israel, God’s chosen people, calling them back to harmony with God.
When his disciples heard it, they were exceedingly amazed, saying, Who then can be saved?(Soteriological)
But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.(Temporal)
– See note on Matthew 10:22. This verse is set in context of temporal calamaties and persecution in the Great Tribulation.
And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened.(Temporal)
– Jesus says, “For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Matt 24:21). Jesus is very clear in vs 22, if the Great Tribulation is elongated, everyone in the entire world will physically die, “there should no flesh be saved”.
And saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself. If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross.(Temporal)
– The passers-by at the crucifixion mocked Jesus, telling him to physically save himself from death on the cross.
He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him.(Temporal x 2)
– The Chief priests, scribes and elders say that Jesus temporally saved others (healing, raising from the dead, exorcisms, making whole, etc.), but he cannot physically save himself from crucifixion.
The rest said, Let be, let us see whether [Elijah] will come to save him.(Temporal)
– These people, mistakenly thinking Jesus called out to Elijah, pondered rather mockingly if Elijah would deliver Jesus from the death of crucifixion.
And he saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? to save life, or to kill? But they held their peace.(Temporal)
– Jesus asked the Pharisees concerning the sabbath, asking if saving one’s physical life was lawful on this day.
And besought him greatly, saying, My little daughter lieth at the point of death: I pray thee, come and lay thy hands on her, that she may be healed; and she shall live.(Temporal)
– Jairus implores Jesus to physically heal his daugher (heal = sozo), so that she may physically live.
For she said, If I may touch but his clothes, I shall be whole.(Temporal)
– See note on Matthew 9:21.
And he said unto her, Daughter, thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace, and be whole of thy plague.(Temporal)
– See note on Matthew 9:22.
And whithersoever he entered, into villages, or cities, or country, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought him that they might touch if it were but the border of his garment: and as many as touched him were made whole.(Temporal)
– Mark relates to us that the sick touched Jesus and were made physically whole.
For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel's, the same shall save it.(Temporal)
– See note on Matthew 16:25).(Temporal (in a metaphorical sense), not justification salvation!)
– Jesus states that the one who gives up (loses) his temporal desires for his life in favor of following Christ in discipleship will save his life in the sense of truly experiencing the “abundant” life in the temporal present that has eternal ramifications (the significance of his temporal life will transect into eternity, in the aspect of a greater experience of life in the kingdom).
And they were astonished out of measure, saying among themselves, Who then can be saved?(Soteriological)
And Jesus said unto him, Go thy way; thy faith hath made thee whole. And immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way.(Temporal)
– Contextually, this is deliverance from physical blindness.
And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.(Temporal)
– See note on Matthew 10:22; 24:13.
And except that the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh should be saved: but for the elect's sake, whom he hath chosen, he hath shortened the days.(Temporal)
– See note on Matthew 24:22.
Save thyself, and come down from the cross.(Temporal)
– See note on Matthew 27:40.
Likewise also the chief priests mocking said among themselves with the scribes, He saved others; himself he cannot save.(Temporal x 2)
– See note on Matthew 27:42.
He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.(Soteriological)
Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask you one thing; Is it lawful on the sabbath days to do good, or to do evil? to save life, or to destroy it?(Temporal)
– See note on Mark 3:4.
And he said to the woman, Thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace.(Soteriological)
Those by the way side are they that hear; then cometh the devil, and taketh away the word out of their hearts, lest they should believe and be saved.(Soteriological)
They also which saw it told them by what means he that was possessed of the devils was healed.(Temporal)
– The swine herdsmen told the crowd how the demoniac was temporally rescued from possession.
And he said unto her, Daughter, be of good comfort: thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace.(Temporal)
– See note on Matthew 9:22.
But when Jesus heard it, he answered him, saying, Fear not: believe only, and she shall be made whole.(Temporal)
– Jesus tells Jairus that his daughter will be temporally and physically raised back to life.
For whosoever will save his life shall lose it: but whosoever will lose his life for my sake, the same shall save it.(Temporal x 2)
– See note on Mark 8:35.
For the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them. And they went to another village.(Temporal)
– Jesus, in reponse to the sons of Thunder, says he did not come to destroy men’s physical lives (as was requested by James and John unto the Samaratans) but to save them, in the sense that he was calling Israel to repent, return to God, which would avert God’s judgement on Israel. Israel did not
nationally repent, and God’s wrath was meted out, whereas in A.D. 70, Jerusalem and its temple were destroyed (see also 2 Peter 3:9).
Then said one unto him, Lord, are there few that be saved?(Soteriological)
And he said unto him, Arise, go thy way: thy faith hath made thee whole.(Temporal)
– Jesus assures the former leper that through his faith he was cleansed (see vs 14).
And they that heard it said, Who then can be saved?(Soteriological)
And Jesus said unto him, Receive thy sight: thy faith hath saved thee.(Temporal)
– See note on Mark 10:52.
For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost.(Temporal)
– See note on Matthew 18:11.
And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God.(Temporal x 2)
– See note on Matthew 27:42.
And saying, If thou be the king of the Jews, save thyself.(Temporal)
– The soldiers mocked as well, chiding Him to deliver Himself from death by crucifixion.
And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us.(Temporal)
– The thieves on either side of Jesus “railed on” him, saying “save… us” from death by crucifixion.
For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved.(Soteriological)
But I receive not testimony from man: but these things I say, that ye might be saved.(Soteriological)
I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture.(Soteriological)
Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well.(Temporal)
– The disciples share that if Lazarus is merely asleep, he will come to temporal, physical wellness.
Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour.(Temporal)
– Jesus will not ask the Father for temporal, physical deliverance from His passion, which He came to earth to accomplish.
And if any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world.(Soteriological)
And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.(Temporal)
– Peter is discussing the temporal deliverance spoken of in Joel 2:28-32 at the “coming of the Great and Awesome Day of the Lord” (Joel 2:31).
And with many other words did he testify and exhort, saying, Save yourselves from this untoward generation.(Temporal)
– Peter is exhorting his Jewish crowd to save themselves
from God’s temporal wrath by repenting (see 2:38). Wrath was coming upon this “untoward generation” who had culpability in the crucifixion of Christ (see Acts 2:36)
Praising God, and having favour with all the people. And the Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved.(Soteriological)
If we this day be examined of the good deed done to the impotent man, by what means he is made whole;(Temporal)
– Peter and John are defending themselves in light of being cross-examined concerning the physical healing of a lame man.
Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.(Soteriological)
Who shall tell thee words, whereby thou and all thy house shall be saved.(Soteriological)
The same heard Paul speak: who stedfastly beholding him, and perceiving that he had faith to be healed,(Temporal)
– Paul sensed that a cripple had faith enough to be physically healed.
And certain men which came down from Judaea taught the brethren, and said, Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved.(Soteriological)
But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they.(Soteriological)
And brought them out, and said, Sirs, what must I do to be saved?(Soteriological)
And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house.(Soteriological)
And when neither sun nor stars in many days appeared, and no small tempest lay on us, all hope that we should be saved was then taken away.(Temporal)
– Luke is speaking of deliverance from the temporal calamity that befell him and Paul at sea.
Paul said to the centurion and to the soldiers, Except these abide in the ship, ye cannot be saved.(Temporal)
– Paul is telling the passangers of the ship that they must remain on-board or they will physically perish.
Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him.(Temporal)
– Paul is discussing how those who are justified by faith in Jesus can be “saved by His life” (Romans 5:10). God’s wrath is a temporal and present possibility! See Romans 1:18 where God’s wrath is now being revealed against sin.
For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.(Temporal)
– “Christians who avail themselves of the resurrection-power found in His life
(= through Him
that is resident in the gospel, [Rom] 1:16) will find deliverance from wrath (v 9), but only if they ‘walk in newness of life’ (6:4) which Paul explains in chapters 6-8” (Romans Unlocked: Power to Deliver
, Rene A. Lopez, p 112)
For we are saved by hope: but hope that is seen is not hope: for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for?(Soteriological)
[Isaiah] also crieth concerning Israel, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved:(Temporal)
– Paul is quoting Isaiah, who is speaking concerning “God’s wrath coming through the Assyrian invasion in 722 B.C. that demolished Israel’s (northern tribes) national existence. The context in Isaiah 10:6 also mentions [temporal] wrath, ‘… the people of My wrath’ which refers to Israel. Yet, God, by His mercy, intervenes and says through Isaiah that a remnant will
return (10:22)” (Ibid., Rene Lopez, p 201).
That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.(Temporal)
– Discussing Israel (Romans 9-11), Paul is referring to their full-orbed salvation, which includes their justification (see Rom 10:10a) and their deliverance from God’s wrath (10:10b). Open confession of Christ and identification with Him are necessary for temporal deliverance from wrath and calamity.
For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.(Temporal)
– Calling upon the name of the Lord is an activity of those who are already related to God! A word study on the phrase and like phrases will report that calling on the name of the Lord is an appeal to God to deliver from temporal circumstances. One cannot even call upon the name of the Lord until they have believed on Him (Romans 10:14). See also note on Acts 2:21.
If by any means I may provoke to emulation them which are my flesh, and might save some of them.(Full-orbed /Soteriological and Temporal)
See temporal wrath language in Romans 11:19-24.
And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob:(Temporal)
– “All Israel
means the whole nation of Israelites who remain alive during the tribulation period (who are justified) will be delivered at the end of the tribulation wrath to enter the millennium and fulfill all of God’s Old Testament promises” (Ibid., Lopez, p 233).
1 Corinthians 1:18
For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the power of God.(Soteriological)
1 Corinthians 1:21
For after that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.(Soteriological)
1 Corinthians 3:15
If any man's work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.(Soteriological)
1 Corinthians 5:5
To deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.(Soteriological)
1 Corinthians 7:16
For what knowest thou, O wife, whether thou shalt save thy husband? or how knowest thou, O man, whether thou shalt save thy wife?(Soteriological x 2)
1 Corinthians 9:22
To the weak became I as weak, that I might gain the weak: I am made all things to all men, that I might by all means save some.(Soteriological)
1 Corinthians 10:33
Even as I please all men in all things, not seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, that they may be saved.(Soteriological)
1 Corinthians 15:2
By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.(Soteriological)
2 Corinthians 2:15
1For we are unto God a sweet savour of Christ, in them that are saved, and in them that perish:(Soteriological)
Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;)(Soteriological)
For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:(Soteriological)
1 Thessalonians 2:16
Forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they might be saved, to fill up their sins alway: for the wrath is come upon them to the uttermost.(Soteriological)
2 Thessalonians 2:10
And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved.(Soteriological)
1 Timothy 1:15
This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief.(Soteriological)
1 Timothy 2:4
Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth.(Soteriological)
1 Timothy 2:15
Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety.(Temporal)
– Paul is talking about a salvation by works for women within the realm of childbearing.
1 Timothy 4:16
Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine; continue in them: for in doing this thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee.(Temporal)
– Paul opens chapter 4 with discussions of ungodly false teachers. If Timothy takes heed and continues in doctrine, he will be able to save himself and his hearers/students from the consequences of false teaching.
2 Timothy 1:9
Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began,(Soteriological)
2 Timothy 4:18
And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.(Soteriological)
Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;(Soteriological)
Who in the days of his flesh, when he had offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to save him from death, and was heard in that he feared;(Temporal)
– God was able to save Jesus from death on the cross, but Christ “learned obedience by the things which He suffered” (Hebrews 5:8). See also note on John 12:27.
Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.(Soteriological)
Wherefore lay apart all filthiness and superfluity of naughtiness, and receive with meekness the engrafted word, which is able to save your souls.(Temporal)
– James, speaking to those who are “brethren”, who are born again (James 1:18), and who have faith in the Lord Jesus Christ (James 2:1), exhorts his readership to lay aside evil, and be doers of the word, which can save the physical life (see wisdom literature of Proverbs).
What doth it profit, my brethren, though a man say he hath faith, and have not works? can faith save him?(Temporal)
– James, in discussion of temporal matters including hunger and nakedness, discusses the inability of faith alone to save from temporal circumstances.
There is one lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy: who art thou that judgest another?(Temporal)
– James, continuing with his practical and temporal exhortations to his saved intended audience, admonishes the brethren that they not judge each other for God alone is the lawgiver, able to save or destroy the physical life.
And the prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him.(Temporal)
– As we have seen from other contexts, the Greek word sozo
, save, can mean physical healing, as it does here.
Let him know, that he which [turns a (NKJV)] sinner from the error of his way shall save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins.(Temporal)
– In the context of a brother “among” “brethren” who has “strayed concerning the truth” (implying he was once in it), James states that one who turns this straying brother from his error will save him from physical death (which is the mature fruit of sin, see James 1:15).
1 Peter 3:21
The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ:(Soteriological)
1 Peter 4:18
And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?(Temporal)
– Taken from Proverbs 11:31 (“If the righteous will be recompensed on the earth, How much more the ungodly and the sinner.”), Peter is discussing the temporal recompense for both righteousness and ungodliness, in the context of temporal suffering.
I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye once knew this, how that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed them that believed not.(Temporal)
– This verse is illustrating Jude’s point by showing how God temporally delivered Israel out of Egypt.
And others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire; hating even the garment spotted by the flesh.(Soteriological)